Development of a jet pump based sampling system for freshwaters

Author: Gabór Bordos, Balazs Kriszt, Zoltan Palotai and Sandor Szoboszlay
Year of Publication: 2018
Published: MICRO 2018. Fate and Impact of Microplastics: Knowledge, Actions and Solutions.

Abstract:
Freshwater studies have mainly been adopting sampling methods from marine research, thus the most commonly used tool is the plankton or manta net, usually with a mesh size of 300 µm or 333 µm. There are certain conditions when application of these sampling systems is com- plicated onsmaller freshwater bodies. Also, the filtered water volume is not obviously defined (due to clogging) even if a flow meter is used. To avoid these difficulties, another sampling approach is needed. Thetechnique using a pump and a set of filters is more common during wastewater sampling than inlakes or rivers. Until now, only a few studies have presented sampling systems that were based on asubmersible or a jet pump, including stainless steel filters. We developed a mobile sampling system that has many benefits when it is applied in inland freshwaters. The size of the complete apparatus enables sampling from a smaller boat or from the shore as well. A jet pump is operated by an aggregator. A PVC hose with a brass foot valve including a 2 mm mesh size strainer is put right under the water surface and is connected to thepump. Water is filtered through a set of 10” stainless steel filter cartridges (variable mesh size) instainless steel housing. Water quantity is measured by a flowmeter precisely. To prevent clogging of the fine mesh size filter (60 im), we coupled two cartridges and put in a 300 im pre-filter. This system enables sampling of more than 2.000 L water even if the Secchi depth is no more than 10 cm (e.g. due to flood or plankton). Project no. KFI 16-1-2017-0477 has been implemented with the support provided by the Na- tional Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary, financed under the ”Vallalati KFI 16” funding scheme.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Freshwater, Jet pump, Sampling

Citation:
Bordós, G., Kriszt, B., Palotai, Z., Szoboszlay, S. (2018): Development of a jet pump based sampling system for freshwaters. pp. 33-34. in Baztan J., Bergmann M., Carrasco A., Fossi C., Jorgensen B., Miguelez A., Pahl S., Thompson R.C., Vanderlinden J-P. (eds.) 2018, MICRO 2018. Fate and Impact of Microplastics: Knowledge, Actions and Solutions. P. 33-34. MSFS-RBLZ. ISBN 978-84-09-06477-9. CC-BY-NC-SA.

Link:
https://micro2018.sciencesconf.org/resource/page/id/8

Identification of microplastics in fish ponds and natural freshwater environments of the Carpathian basin, Europe

Author: Gábor Bordós, Béla Urbányi, Adrienn Micsinai, Balázs Kriszt, Zoltán Palotai, István Szabó, Zsolt Hantosi and Sándor Szoboszlay
Year of Publication: 2019
Published: Chemosphere 216: 110-116

Abstract:
In the past few years, there has been a significant development in freshwater microplastic research. Pollution has been detected in lakes and rivers of several continents, but the number of papers is still marginal compared to the ones investigating marine environments. In this study, we present the first detection of microplastics (MPs) in Central and Eastern European (CEE) surface waters and, globally, the first detection in fish ponds. Samples were taken from different types of fish ponds and natural water bodies along a novel concept down to a particle size of 100 μm, then, after sample preparation, MPs were characterized using an FTIR microscope. 92% of the water samples contained MPs ranging from 3.52 to 32.05 particles/m3. MPs were detected in 69% of the sediment samples ranging from 0.46 to 1.62 particles/kg. Dominant abundance of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene was shown in water and PP and polystyrene in sediment samples. First results also indicate that fish ponds may act as a deposition area for MPs.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Fish pond, Freshwater, Carpathian basin

Citation:
Bordós, G., Urbányi, B., Micsinai, A., Kriszt, B., Palotai, Z., Szabó, I., Hantosi, Zs., Szoboszlay, S., 2019. Identification of microplastics in fish ponds and natural freshwater environments of the Carpathian basin, Europe. Chemosphere 216: 110-116.

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653518319714

Sources and fate of microplastics in urban areas: A focus on Paris megacity

Author: Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi and Bruno Tassin
Year of Publication: 2018
Published: Wagner M., Lambert S. (eds.). Freshwater Microplastics. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 58. Springer, Cham

Abstract:
Since the beginning of the 2010s, the number of investigations on microplastics in freshwater increased dramatically. However, almost no study aims at investigating the various sources and fate of microplastics in a catchment. This chapter aims at analyzing the various sources and fate of microplastics for an urban catchment and its hydrosystem (sewage, runoff, etc.). It presents the results obtained during a 3-year study of the Paris Megacity. Such a study required the development of appropriate sampling strategies for each compartment. It was highlighted that fibers are highly concentrated in the studied area, and therefore a focus in this category of microplastics was carried out. The atmospheric fallout exhibited important levels of fibers. However, at the scale of the Parisian agglomeration, wastewater treatment plant disposals and combined sewer overflows represent the major sources (number of fibers introduced per year) among the studied ones.

Keywords:
Fibers, Freshwater, Microplastics, Plastic pollution, Urban areas, Urban impact

Citation:
Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Tassin, B., 2018c. Sources and fate of microplastics in urban areas: A focus on Paris megacity. In: Wagner M., Lambert S. (eds.). Freshwater Microplastics. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 58. Springer, Cham.

Link:
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-61615-5_4#citeas

Synthetic and non-synthetic anthropogenic fibers in a river under the impact of Paris Megacity: Sampling methodological aspects and flux estimations

Author: Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Vincent Rocher and Bruno Tassin
Year of Publication: 2018
Published: Science of the Total Environment 618: 157–164

Abstract:
Processed fibers are highly present in our daily life and can be either natural, artificial (regenerated cellulose) and synthetic (made with petrochemicals). Their widespread use lead inevitably to a high contamination of environment. Previous studies focus on plastic particles regardless of their type or shape as long as they are comprised between 330μm and 5mm. On the contrary, this study focuses exclusively on fibers using a smaller mesh size net (80μm) to sample freshwater. Moreover, all processed organic fibers are considered, irrespective to their nature. First, the short term temporal variability of the fibers in the environment was assessed. While exposing the sampling net during 1min a coefficient of variation of approx. 45% (with n=6) was determined. It was of only 26% (n=6) when the exposure was of 3min. The assessment of the distribution through the section showed a possible difference in concentrations between the middle of the water surface and the river banks which could be attributed to the intense river traffic within the Paris Megacity. The vertical variability seems negligible as turbulence and current conditions homogenize the distribution of the fibers. A monthly monitoring showed concentrations of 100.6±99.9fibers·m-3 in the Marne River and of: 48.5±98.5, 27.9±26.3, 27.9±40.3 and 22.1±25.3fibers·m-3 from the upstream to downstream points in the Seine River. Once these concentrations are converted into fluxes, it seems that the impact generated by the Paris Megacity cannot be distinguished. Investigations on the role of sedimentation and deposition on the banks are required. This study helped fill some major knowledge gaps regarding the fibers in rivers, their sampling, occurrence, spatial-temporal distribution and fluxes. It is encouraged that future studies include both synthetic and none synthetic fibers.

Keywords:
Fibers, Freshwater, Microplastic sampling, Microplastics, Synthetic fibers

Citation:
Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Rocher, V., Tassin, B., 2018b. Synthetic and non-synthetic anthropogenic fibers in a river under the impact of Paris Megacity: Sampling methodological aspects and flux estimations. Science of the Total Environment 618: 157–164.

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717330723?via%3Dihub

Microplastic contamination in an urban area: A case study in Greater Paris

Author: Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Vincent Rocher, Mohamed Saad, Nicolas Renault and Bruno Tassin
Year of Publication: 2015
Published: Environmental Chemistry 12(5): 592-599

Abstract:
This study investigates the microplastic contamination of both urban compartments (wastewater and total atmospheric fallout) and surface water in a continental environment. These first investigations on an urban environment confirm the presence of microplastics in sewage, fresh water and total atmospheric fallout and provide knowledge on the type and size distribution of microplastics in the 100–5000-µm range. For the first time, the presence of microplastics, mostly fibres, is highlighted in total atmospheric fallout (29–280 particles m–2 day–1). High levels of fibres were found in wastewater (260–320 × 103 particles m–3). In treated effluent, the contamination significantly decreased to 14–50 × 103 particles m–3. In the River Seine, two sampling devices were used to collect both large and small microplastic particles: (i) a plankton net (80-µm mesh), and (ii) a manta trawl (330-µm mesh). Sampling with the plankton net showed a predominance of fibres, with concentrations ranging from 3 to 108 particles m–3. A greater diversity of both microplastic shapes and types was found during manta trawl sampling but at much lower concentrations (0.28–0.47 particles m–3). This combined approach could be relevant and implemented in future studies to provide an accurate overview of microplastic distribution in freshwater.

Keywords:
Atmospheric fallout, Freshwater, Rivers, Synthetic fibres, Urban environment

Citation:
Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Rocher, V., Saad, M., Renault, N., Tassin, B., 2015a. Microplastic contamination in an urban area: A case study in Greater Paris. Environmental Chemistry 12(5): 592–599.

Link:
https://www.publish.csiro.au/EN/EN14167

Wastewater treatment plant effluents as source of cosmetic polyethylene microbeads to freshwater

Author: Kalčíková Gabriela, Branko Alič, Tina Skalar, Mirco Bundschuh, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
Year of Publication: 2017
Published: Chemosphere, Volume: 188, Page: 25-31

Abstract:
Microplastics in the environment are either a product of the fractionation of larger plastic items or a consequence of the release of microbeads, which are ingredients of cosmetics, through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of microbeads that may be released by the latter pathways to surface waters using Ljubljana, Slovenia as a case study. For this purpose, microbeads contained in cosmetics were in a first step characterized for their physical properties and particle size distribution. Subsequently, daily emission of microbeads from consumers to the sewerage system, their fate in biological WWTPs and finally their release into surface waters were estimated for Ljubljana. Most of the particles found in cosmetic products were <100 μm. After application, microbeads are released into sewerage system at an average rate of 15.2 mg per person per day. Experiments using a lab-scale sequencing batch biological WWTP confirmed that on average 52% of microbeads are captured in activated sludge. Particle size analyses of the influent and effluent confirmed that smaller particles (up to 60–70 μm) are captured within activated sludge while bigger particles were detected in the effluent. Applying these data to the situation in Ljubljana indicates that about 112,500,000 particles may daily be released into the receiving river, resulting in a microbeads concentration of 21 particles/m3. Since polyethylene particles cannot be degraded and thus likely accumulate, the data raise concerns about potential effects in aquatic ecosystems in future.

Keywords:
Cosmetics, Freshwater, Microplastics, Polyethylene microbead

Citation:
Kalčíková Gabriela, Branko Alič, Tina Skalar, Mirco Bundschuh, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn (2017): Wastewater treatment plant effluents as source of cosmetic polyethylene microbeads to freshwater. Chemosphere, vol. 188, str. 25-31

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653517313541

Kalčikova_2017_microbeads