Development of a jet pump based sampling system for freshwaters

Author: Gabór Bordos, Balazs Kriszt, Zoltan Palotai and Sandor Szoboszlay
Year of Publication: 2018
Published: MICRO 2018. Fate and Impact of Microplastics: Knowledge, Actions and Solutions.

Abstract:
Freshwater studies have mainly been adopting sampling methods from marine research, thus the most commonly used tool is the plankton or manta net, usually with a mesh size of 300 µm or 333 µm. There are certain conditions when application of these sampling systems is com- plicated onsmaller freshwater bodies. Also, the filtered water volume is not obviously defined (due to clogging) even if a flow meter is used. To avoid these difficulties, another sampling approach is needed. Thetechnique using a pump and a set of filters is more common during wastewater sampling than inlakes or rivers. Until now, only a few studies have presented sampling systems that were based on asubmersible or a jet pump, including stainless steel filters. We developed a mobile sampling system that has many benefits when it is applied in inland freshwaters. The size of the complete apparatus enables sampling from a smaller boat or from the shore as well. A jet pump is operated by an aggregator. A PVC hose with a brass foot valve including a 2 mm mesh size strainer is put right under the water surface and is connected to thepump. Water is filtered through a set of 10” stainless steel filter cartridges (variable mesh size) instainless steel housing. Water quantity is measured by a flowmeter precisely. To prevent clogging of the fine mesh size filter (60 im), we coupled two cartridges and put in a 300 im pre-filter. This system enables sampling of more than 2.000 L water even if the Secchi depth is no more than 10 cm (e.g. due to flood or plankton). Project no. KFI 16-1-2017-0477 has been implemented with the support provided by the Na- tional Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary, financed under the ”Vallalati KFI 16” funding scheme.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Freshwater, Jet pump, Sampling

Citation:
Bordós, G., Kriszt, B., Palotai, Z., Szoboszlay, S. (2018): Development of a jet pump based sampling system for freshwaters. pp. 33-34. in Baztan J., Bergmann M., Carrasco A., Fossi C., Jorgensen B., Miguelez A., Pahl S., Thompson R.C., Vanderlinden J-P. (eds.) 2018, MICRO 2018. Fate and Impact of Microplastics: Knowledge, Actions and Solutions. P. 33-34. MSFS-RBLZ. ISBN 978-84-09-06477-9. CC-BY-NC-SA.

Link:
https://micro2018.sciencesconf.org/resource/page/id/8

Identification of microplastics in fish ponds and natural freshwater environments of the Carpathian basin, Europe

Author: Gábor Bordós, Béla Urbányi, Adrienn Micsinai, Balázs Kriszt, Zoltán Palotai, István Szabó, Zsolt Hantosi and Sándor Szoboszlay
Year of Publication: 2019
Published: Chemosphere 216: 110-116

Abstract:
In the past few years, there has been a significant development in freshwater microplastic research. Pollution has been detected in lakes and rivers of several continents, but the number of papers is still marginal compared to the ones investigating marine environments. In this study, we present the first detection of microplastics (MPs) in Central and Eastern European (CEE) surface waters and, globally, the first detection in fish ponds. Samples were taken from different types of fish ponds and natural water bodies along a novel concept down to a particle size of 100 μm, then, after sample preparation, MPs were characterized using an FTIR microscope. 92% of the water samples contained MPs ranging from 3.52 to 32.05 particles/m3. MPs were detected in 69% of the sediment samples ranging from 0.46 to 1.62 particles/kg. Dominant abundance of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene was shown in water and PP and polystyrene in sediment samples. First results also indicate that fish ponds may act as a deposition area for MPs.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Fish pond, Freshwater, Carpathian basin

Citation:
Bordós, G., Urbányi, B., Micsinai, A., Kriszt, B., Palotai, Z., Szabó, I., Hantosi, Zs., Szoboszlay, S., 2019. Identification of microplastics in fish ponds and natural freshwater environments of the Carpathian basin, Europe. Chemosphere 216: 110-116.

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653518319714

Using solitary ascidians to assess microplastic and phthalate plasticizers pollution among marine biota: A case study of the Eastern Mediterranean and Red Sea

Author: Gal Vered, Aviv Kaplan, Dror Avisar and Noa Shenkar
Year of Publication: 2019
Published: Marine Pollution Bulletin 138: 618-625

Abstract:
The interaction of microplastic (MP) with marine organisms is crucial for understanding the significant effect that MP and its additives may have on marine environments. However, knowledge regarding the magnitude of these pollutants in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the tropical Red Sea is still scarce. Here we examined the levels of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and MP in Herdmania momus and Microcosmus exasperatus sampled along the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts of Israel. High levels of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis (2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were found in ascidians at the majority of sampling sites, and MP particles were found in ascidians at all sites. As efficient filter-feeders and being widely-distributed, invasive ascidians present fundamental opportunities for the environmental monitoring of microplastic and its additives worldwide. The high levels of pollutants revealed emphasize the need for further research into the magnitude and effects of MP and PAEs in these regions.

Keywords:
Eastern Mediterranean, Gulf of Aqaba, Microplastic, Phthalate plasticizers, Tunicates

Citation:
Vered, G., Kaplan, A., Avisar, D., Shenkar, N., 2019. Using solitary ascidians to assess microplastic and phthalate plasticizers pollution among marine biota: A case study of the Eastern Mediterranean and Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 138: 618-625.

Link :
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.12.013

Macroplastic and microplastic contamination assessment of a tropical river (Saigon River, Vietnam) transversed by a developing megacity

Author: Lisa Lahens, Emilie Strady, Thuy-ChungKieu-Le, Rachid Dris, Kada Boukermae, Emmanuel Rinnert, Johnny Gasperi and Bruno Tassin
Year of Publication: 2018
Published: Environmental Pollution 236: 661–671

Abstract:
Both macroplastic and microplastic contamination levels were assessed for the first time in a tropical river estuary system, i.e. the Saigon River, that traverses a developing South East Asian megacity, i.e. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The analysis of floating debris collected daily on the Nhieu Loc – Thi Nghe canal by the municipal waste management service shows that the plastic mass percentage represents 11–43%, and the land-based plastic debris entering the river was estimated from 0.96 to 19.91 g inhabitant−1 d−1, namely 350 to 7270 g inhabitant−1 yr−1. Microplastics were assessed in the Saigon River and in four urban canals by sampling bulk water for anthropogenic fiber analysis and 300 μm mesh size plankton net exposition for fragment analysis. Fibers and fragments are highly concentrated in this system, respectively 172,000 to 519,000 items m−3 and 10 to 223 items m−3. They were found in various colors and shapes with smallest size and surface classes being predominant. The macroplastics and fragments were mainly made of polyethylene and polypropylene while the anthropogenic fibers were mainly made of polyester. The relation between macroplastic and microplastic concentrations, waste management, population density and water treatment are further discussed.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Macroplastic, Urban river, Contamination, Anthropogenic fibers

Citation:
Lahens, L., Strady, E., Kieu-Le, T.-C., Dris, R.,  Boukerma, K., Rinnert, E., Gasperi, J., Tassin, B., 2018. Macroplastic and microplastic contamination assessment of a tropical river (Saigon River, Vietnam) transversed by a developing megacity. Environmental Pollution 236: 661–671.

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749117330579

How microplastics quantities increase with flood events? An example from Mersin Bay NE Levantine coast of Turkey

Author: Sedat Gündoğdu, Cem Çevik, Berna Ayat, Burak Aydoğan and Serkan Karaca
Year of Publication: 2018
Published: Environmental Pollution 239: 342-350

Abstract:
Floods caused by heavy rain carry significant amounts of pollutants into marine environments. This study evaluates the effect of multiple floods that occurred in the northeastern Mediterranean region in Turkey between December 2016 and January 2017 on the microplastic pollution in the Mersin Bay. Sampling was repeated in four different stations both before and after the flood period, and it was determined that in the four stations, there was an average of 539,189 MPs/km2 before the flood, and 7,699,716 MPs/km² afterwards, representing a 14-fold increase. Fourteen different polymer types were detected in an ATR FT-IR analysis, eight of which were not found in samples collected before the floods. The most common polymer type was identified as polyethylene both pre- and post-flood. The mean particle size, which was 2.37 mm in the pre-flood period, decreased to 1.13 mm in the post-flood period. A hydrodynamic modeling study was implemented to hindcast the current structure and the spatial and temporal distributions of microplastics within the study area. In conclusion, heavy rain and severe floods can dramatically increase the microplastic levels in the sea.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Marine litter, Levantine Sea, Mersin Bay, Rain flood, ATR FT-IR

Citation:
Gündoğdu, S., Çevik, D., Ayat, B., Aydoğan, B., Karaca, S., 2018. How microplastics quantities increase with flood events? An example from Mersin Bay NE Levantine coast of Turkey. Environmental Pollution 239: 342-350.

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749118300939

Contamination of table salts from Turkey with microplastics

Author: Sedat Gündoğdu
Year of Publication: 2018
Published: Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 35 (5): 1006-1014

Abstract:
Microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a problem that affects all aquatic, atmospheric and terrestial environments in the world. In this study, we looked into whether MPs in seas and lakes reach consumers through table salt. For this purpose, we obtained 16 brands of table salts from the Turkish market and determined their MPs content with microscopic and Raman spectroscopic examination. According to our results, the MP particle content was 16–84 item/kg in sea salt, 8–102 item/kg in lake salt and 9–16 item/kg in rock salt. The most common plastic polymers were polyethylene (22.9%) and polypropylene (19.2%). When the amounts of MPs and the amount of salt consumed by Turkish consumers per year are considered together, if they consume sea salt, lake salt or rock salt, they consume 249–302, 203–247 or 64–78 items per year, respectively. This is the first time this concerning level of MPs content in table salts in the Turkish market has been reported.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Table salt, Contamination, Food security, Turkey

Citation:
Gündoğdu, S., 2018. Contamination of table salts from Turkey with microplastics. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 35 (5), 1006-1014.

Link:
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19440049.2018.1447694

High level of micro-plastic pollution in the Iskenderun Bay NE Levantine coast of Turkey

Author: Sedat Gündoğdu
Year of Publication: 2017
Published: Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 34(4): 401 – 408

Abstract:
Microplastic pollution is a global problem. The Mediterranean Sea, especially, has high pressure of pollution as it is enclosed by highly populated and industrialized countries. In this study, we have determined the level of microplastic pollution in the Iskenderun Bay, located in the Northeastern Levantine coast of Turkey. The average level of microplastic has been determined to be 1,067,120 particles/km² at fourteen stations. The highest level has been determined at the M4 station in the middle of the bay (with 1820 items; 2,888,889 particles/km²), and the lowest level has been found at the M11 station (62 items; 98,412 particles/km²). As a result of this study, it was determined that the microplastic pollution level in the Iskenderun Bay is higher than the other regions of the Mediterranean Sea.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Marine litter, Levantine Sea, Iskenderun Bay

Citation:
Gündoğdu , S., 2017. High level of micro-plastic pollution in the Iskenderun Bay NE Levantine coast of Turkey. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 34(4): 401 – 408.

Link:
http://www.egejfas.org/issue/29803/329228

Micro- and mesoplastics in Northeast Levantine coast of Turkey: the preliminary results from surface samples

Author: Sedat Gündoğdu and Cem Çevik
Year of Publication: 2017
Published: Marine Pollution Bulletin 118(1-2): 341-347

Abstract:
The determination of the microplastic distribution will be beneficial as a measure of the potential effects on the environment. The Mediterranean Sea had a high risk of pollution as it was enclosed by highly populated and industrialized countries. Here, we determined the level of micro- and mesoplastic pollution in Iskenderun and Mersin Bays, located in the Northeastern Levantine coast of Turkey. The average level of both micro- and mesoplastic was determined to be 0.376 item/m2 at seven stations. The highest level was determined in Mersin Bay at the mouth of the Seyhan river (Station no. 7, with 906 items), and the lowest level was found in Station no. 4 in Iskenderun Bay (78 items). As a result of this study, it was determined that the microplastic pollution level in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey was similar to the other regions of the Mediterranean Sea.

Keywords:
Microplastic, Mesoplastic, Marine Litter, Levantine Sea, Mersin Bay, Iskenderun Bay

Citation:
Gündoğdu, S., Çevik, C., 2017. Micro-and mesoplastics in Northeast Levantine coast of Turkey: the preliminary results from surface samples. Marine Pollution Bulletin 118(1-2): 341-347.

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17302084