Riverine Litter Monitoring – Options and Recommendations

Author: Daniel González, Georg Hanke, Gijsbert Tweehuysen, Bert Bellert, Marloes Holzhauer, Andreja Palatinus, Philipp Hohenblum and Lex Oosterbaan
Year of Publication: 2016
Published: JRC Technical Report. EUR28307 EN

Abstract:
Marine litter is an issue of global concern, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In order to establish programmes of measures that aim to reduce plastics and their possible impacts, sources of litter and their pathways to the marine environment need to be identified and quantified. Riverine litter input is estimated to be a major contributor to marine litter, but there is no comprehensive information about the amount of litter being transported through rivers to the sea. Furthermore, there are no harmonised methodologies for providing quantitative data for… comparable assessments of riverine litter. This technical report compiles the options for monitoring riverine litter and quantifying litter fluxes, focusing on anthropogenic litter. It includes the current scientific and technical background regarding litter in river systems, their flow regime and basic properties. The document aims to provide recommendations for monitoring approaches and methodologies. It also provides indications on the issues which need to be further developed in a collaborative approach. An extensive literature review has been performed in order to identify the existing options for the monitoring of litter items in rivers. Different monitoring methods are used in two environmental compartments: river water bodies and riverbanks. For a river water body, the river water surface can be monitored by visual observation and image acquisition, while collection methodologies of the water column include the use of retaining structures and sampling using grids, nets and filtration systems (with different mesh sizes and openings) at different water depths. Riverbank monitoring comprises the observation and eventual collection of litter items and sediment samples from the riverbanks. Methodologies are described and technical details are reported whenever available. As methodologies are further developed and basic research is ongoing, it is currently not possible to provide clear guidance on how to monitor riverine litter, though some initial recommendations can be made. General recommendations highlight the need for additional scientific knowledge, which should be made accessible to facilitate communication and coordination among key players in order to harmonise efforts and provide guidance at international level in a collaborative way. Knowledge gaps should be filled by analysing the outcome of these ongoing activities (the recommendations include a list of identified gaps). As there are no agreed monitoring methodologies at the international level, guidance on the monitoring of riverine litter is needed, including metadata requirements and reporting units. In order to quantify riverine litter input to the marine environment, monitoring methods have to provide data that can be related to river flow in order to be able to calculate litter fluxes (e.g. visual observation of the river water surface and collection method for the river water body).

Keywords:
Anti-pollution device, Aquatic environment, Coastal protection, Consumer behaviour, Data collection, Environmental monitoring, Environmental protection, Environmental research, Inland waterway, Marine ecosystem, Marine pollution, Pollution control, Pollution from land-based sources, Pollution of waterways, Research report, Sea, Water pollutant, Water pollution, Watercourse

Citation:
González, D., Hanke, G., Tweehuysen, G., Bellert, B., Holzhauer, M., Palatinus, A., Hohenblum, P., Oosterbaan, L., 2016. Riverine Litter Monitoring – Options and Recommendations. MSFD GES TG Marine Litter Thematic Report. JRC Technical Report. EUR28307 EN; doi.org/10.2788/461233.

Link:
https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/816a2049-dbb8-11e6-ad7c-01aa75ed71a1/language-en

Fouling assemblage of benthic plastic debris collected from Mersin Bay, NE Levantine coast of Turkey

Author: Sedat Gündoğdu and Cem Çevik
Year of Publication: 2017
Published: Marine Pollution Bulletin 124(1): 147-154

Abstract:
The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88 kg plastic (mean = 0,97 kg; n = 120; 2670 item/km²; 86,3 kg/km²) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics. 17 different fouling species belonging to 6 phylum (Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Mollusca) 7 class and 11 order were discovered on plastics. Spirobranchus triqueter, Hydroides sp. and Neopycnodonte cochlear were the most abundant species. In the end, the example of Mersin Bay shows that plastic debris as a substrate can contain a very high diversity of life just like natural substrates.

Keywords:
Marine plastic debris, Biofouling, ATR FT-IR, Marine pollution, Mersin Bay

Citation:
Gündoğdu, S., Çevik, C., 2017. Fouling assemblage of benthic plastic debris collected from Mersin Bay, NE Levantine coast of Turkey. Marine Pollution Bulletin 124(1): 147-154.

Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17306045